Connecting The Consumer With
The Wildlife Control Industry.
Robb Russell, Founder,
The Wildlife Pro Network
The Wildlife Pro Network
OCTOBER 2009 Feature Article
Coyote Behavior In The Fall & Winter by Reginald Murray,
Oklahoma Wildlife Control
Photos Submitted by Aaron
Burris of Piedmont Wildlife
Services. They service all of
Forsyth County including the
communities of Winston Salem,
Kernersville, Lewisville, Rural
Hall, Tobaccoville, and
orth Carolina Wildlife Damage
Control Agent # 09-DCA00344
Phone: 24 hours a day: (336)
480-6829 or (336) 751-5095
Aaron Burris - Owner - NC
Wildlife Damage Control Agent
As Nuisance Wildlife Control Operators move into the winter season we are faced with inherent changes in the ways we have to conduct our businesses, the way we face
new wildlife problems, and the changes wildlife will undergo that coincide with the season and colder climate. None of these changing characteristics in wildlife are more prevalent,
in my opinion, than that of the coyote (Canis latrans). Where do coyotes range? They are found in every state of the United States except Hawaii. Suffice it to say coyotes range all
over North America including Canada, as well as Mexico.
First of all, we will address the health risks and other contagious aspects of coyotes (Canis latrans). Coyotes are susceptible to many of the same ailments as domestic dogs, and
therefore can be carriers of the same diseases. Click here for a listing of canine infections.
" Distemper - is one of the more common and serious diseases. Distemper is a contagious, incurable, often fatal, multisystemic viral disease that affects the respiratory,
gastrointestinal, and central nervous systems. It is possible for humans to contract an asymptomatic (subclinical) CDV infection. Anyone who's been immunized against measles (a
related virus) is protected against CDV as well.
" Mange - Another common coyote disease, Mange is caused by a small mite that burrows into the skin, causing an irritation. This disease is extremely contagious, affecting as much
as 70% of the coyote population. Mange mites can infect humans, but the symptoms are usually mild, consisting of a rash near the infected area.
" Heartworm - infection is a fairly common disease caused by parasitic worms living in the arteries of the lungs and heart of coyotes. In rare instances humans have also contracted
this serious and potentially fatal disease.
" Rabies - is an acute, fatal encephalomyelitis caused by neurotropic viruses. It is almost always transmitted by an animal bite that inoculates the virus into wounds. Any coyote bit or
scratch should receive prompt local treatment by thorough cleansing of the wound with copious amounts of soap and water; this local treatment will significantly reduce the risk of
rabies. Anyone who may have been exposed to rabies should be advised to always contact local health authorities immediately for advice about post exposure prophylaxis and
should also contact their personal physician as soon as possible. Coyotes are a rabies vectored species in North America.
Secondly coyotes are much easier to capture in the colder climate brought on by the winter months, than they are in the spring\ and summer. A coyotes diet changes during the fall
and winter months, to a more of a meat base so the use of meat based lures, urines and odor baits (long distance calls) have more desired results in attracting coyotes to the sets.
Where as during the spring and summer months, coyotes tend to have a definite sweet tooth appetite that causes them to consume more seeds and berries and more appropriately
designed "NWCO" lures can be implemented with a greater degree of success.
Thirdly coyotes do not have a "natural predator" to maintain the numbers in their populations. Controlling their numbers also serves to control diseases, parasites and other
contagions that are prevalent in this canine species. Therefore the best that canbe offered to the public and private sectors of consumers are those established and professional
Nuisance Wildlife Control Operators.
Fourthly coyotes are opportunistic scavengers, and very efficient killers. This is where the biggest problem lies in this canine species because they tend to target the fall and
winter "new" livestock offspring, such as those from late season cattle, goats, poultries, deer, etc. During the fall and winter months the coyotes also tend to "pack up" in larger
numbers to increase their chances of successfully surviving the harsher climates and conditions.
Coyote Social Season Behavior Patterns:
" Mating (includes breeding) ~ From about December 15th until around the mid part of March (March 15th) is the coyote's generally average breeding season. During the breeding
season, coyotes become more socially aggressive and territorial.
" Denning (includes whelping) ~ From March 15 through May 15, one can expect the coyotes to expend their energies providing for the pups, they are less vocal during this period,
and tend to be defensive in their "core" areas only.
" Pup Rearing ~ From about May 15 until September 15th, one can expect the territorial maintenance to be low, core defenses high, reluctant to reveal their positions and more
nocturnal (twilight hours) or crepuscular (early morning and late evening) in their actions and movements.
" Dispersal ~ From September 15th through December 15th you can expect to see more transient coyotes, and more relaxed social bonds in their behaviors. We would advise an
N.W.C.O. business to focus more attention on their local breeders, ranchers and commercial deer hunting properties as viable business channels. These are the winter demographics
that will assist you in succeeding where others have failed. Let your clients know that there is an increase in meat consumption by coyotes during these winter months, which will
equate to a loss of revenue to their herds.
Money in coyote hide will never be seen again. In the fur industry coyote is trim. Most trim is from scrap and any fur scrap can be died for trim on a garment. However, there is
money to be found in the proper and educated approach and management of coyote populations in terms of ranchers, breeders and hunting leases. Don't be afraid to seek out these
sources of revenue to sustain your winter activities and if you happen to sell the hides then it's just extra gas money from the lines. Nuisance Wildlife Control Operators, and
established businesses can utilize this knowledge and time to their benefit, and this will assist them in sustaining income through the winter months.
Readers Note: The coyotes seen within this article were removed from properties where they caused damages or depredations to livestock, herds or poultries.
If you have any questions about coyotes, or you are seeking professional solutions to a coyote problem or threat, please seek guidance at the following:
We would like to thank Aaron Burris of Piedmont Wildlife Services in North Carolina and Reginald Murray of Oklahoma Wildlife Controlฎ LLC in Oklahoma for their contributions
to this article. Please direct all questions and comments to the author at: firstname.lastname@example.org. Thank you.